The good old fashioned manual labor. Annotate a sentence, paragraph or document for your task. For example: tag a word with a Part-of-Speech tag, or Dependency tag. Tag one or more words as a Named Entity. Or tag a sequence of words with a Category-tag.
Over the years, numerous of annotation tools were developed. Here is a list with almost hundred annotation tools. A lot of them have terrible inefficient user interfaces or are not actively developed.
This article is part of the project Periodic Table of NLP Tasks. Click to read more about the making of the Periodic Table and the project to systemize NLP tasks.